Reproduction is indeed current nature
I) Signs of reproduction
An educational extension, a separation of labour from leisure, a firm guarantee of amusement and pleasure etc. are factors that accelerate imitated culture that can meet the needs for the new customer base, i.e. the public to bring about. The components of this structure were settled down in mid-nineteenth century and incarnated in its appearance and came to maturity for half a century later in sports, fashion, amusements. According to (The Social Base of Art) that :Mr Meyer Schapiro completed in 1936, since 1860, as the forms of popular culture that just brought out at that time began to combine with Impressionism, modernism repeated logical developments. Also art d'avant-garde equalized art itself to habit of pleasure and a rest was produced very concretely in the existing frame of commercial entertainment and tourism. Mr. Meyer Schapiro thought that these phenomena occurred even when it was regarded that the art wholly withdrew into its own area, sensitivity, and medium. As leisure was separated from labour in the capitalistic economy the invisible frame that regarded such discursive expenences equally as the images of pleasure formed. A part of the subjects on the expression of the Impressionism was utilized for showing leisure industry that just began to rise at that time( l870's) as an individual private life was more natural and unconstrained moment. As Manet did in (A Bar at the Follies-Bergère), the picture that he painted exquisitely café tables and café concert were commercial products and trade marks stuck on there in the consumption society.
The collage that the Cubists began to experiment since 1912, the materials that they used here for accepting more popular commercial products and principles within the context of high class arts were mass-culture especially trade marks, ad leaflets, posters, cigarette boxes, ads of department store, signs, news papers, foods related to cafe life etc. Such respective consumption media stimulated associations and interactions related to the specific site of those commercial products, events, time etc. Compositional principles of collage were different from traditional painting style that one should paint a picture with oil paints. The Cubism was achieved by substituting painting methods for fragmented consumption of images that were already made.
The form of mass-cultural life was changed into consumption in order that one might justify one's existence in the capitalistic economy. The consumption has been expanding by popular expanded desires, sensual satisfactions and promises of media that guarantee pleasure and happiness. In our reality that images reached saturation, cultural industries showed the abilities that it make them pack in commercial products and sell nearly all imaginable desires.
These fragmented images, i.e. the collages became important components as accepting the form of advertisements
in (Just What Is It That Makes Today's Home So Different So Appealing?) of popiste, Mr. Richard Hamilton, the early works in art movements
after the Wars.
2) Systematic and logical bases of reproduction
As having been recalled since Mr.Walter Benjamin's (Das Kunstwerk in Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit), the genuineness as a concept of oneness has been diluting as human beings are approaching to the plural media essentially.
"For example, after negative film was invented, it was possible to develop photographs regardless of number of pieces. Mr. Benjamin explained that under these circumstances, to discuss photographs is meaningless. Now the opinions of Mr. Benjamin who lived in analogue era changed much.
The images that we took by a camera are stored in the extension of jpg. in the computer. Modelled objects by using computer are stored in the extension of jpg. and/or tif. in the computer. It is same till here. But according to an artist's consciousness, the destiny of images changes. The judgment is reserved whether the images remain photographs, or print art works, or digital art works.
For another example, these were originally very small in a large synthetic art work called (La Porte de l'Enfer) that Mr. Rodin made
for places to allocate all the statues. Rodin's statues that were made within the size of unfolding five fingers inhaled vitality from
his hands. If Mr. Rodin commissioned small statues, that is, maquettes to the molders, they could reproduce them by a cast with enlarging
In 1918 when Mr. Rodin died, there were not molded ones and still wet plaster model left. There were only several reproduced ones left in the state of no original art works even until the French government that accepted a bequest of all the property including rights to mold molded through the whole national exercise of right. Under these crrcumstances, at the start, It is a controversial issue to claim that anything for statues were original. As examples we can present (Les Trois Nymphes) and (Three Shadows) etc. of the attached ones to (La Porte de l'Enfer). These 2 works were that 3 respectively reproduced statues were linked in a circle.
Mr. Lawrence Alloway said All human cultures can be located side by side in a straight, horizontal line as images that having an equal
importance", even though his radical proposal was accepted by a part of popiste, it became a critical base. Be that as it may any image
can not take part in this line. However it is certain that this contributes for popistes to expand the area of the arts and to reflect
social and political phenomena at the present age.
3) Conditions that make reproduction rife
The word, popular, at the start, means mass productive and something easy to approach. At least it was so to Mr. Lawrence Alloway and The Independent Group's thoughts. Popiste accepted not only commercial designs but also Italian Futurism especially in speed appearing in automobiles and modern technology before World War I came, Dada's arrogant attitude and the attitudes breakmg down an old custom and will that is going to allow all the things in the field of the arts - objet trouvé and Surrealism's objet trouvé, encounter by chance and ready-made. Another favorite technique of popistes is collage.
As proved definitely in Andy Warhol's (200 Camp bell Soup Cans) 1962, Synthetic oil paintings, silkscreen ink on canvas,
182.9x254cm, his emphases on commercial products with trade marks have important meanings when we consider a number of
characteristics as follow;
Firstly, Mr. Warhol who grasped the market situation better than any other popistes did abandoned traditional peinture de chevalet and positively exploited silkscreen, a kind of printing method in order to reproduce massively and concentrate on silkscreen for preparation of mass consumption in 1962.
Although silkscreening has its roots in ancient oriental stencil printing, its invention is sometimes credited to Samuel Simon,
of Manchester, England, who patented a silkscreen process in 1907. However, a commercial technique for making posters, signs,
and displays, silkscreen became popular in New York and San Francisco during and shortly after World War I. In the period between
the World Wars, its commercial application was perfected, and the medium has since achieved the status of a a major industry.
The strong point of silkscreen is in the fact that we can reproduce massively a separate image in oder to make furthermore people purchase at cheap price. It caused problems that were based on close relation with market, collusion with market, exploitation of market. Mr. Warhol exploited repetitive possibilities of silkscreen to concentrate on an image.
Secondly, introduced the techniques of advertisement as components of art work composition.
The style of work was the fact that popistes introduced commercial ad design. The popistes identified with commercial environments in city and appearances prudently designed of commercial products as a metaphor for creative process. The popistes took simple and easily understanding images in style. The forms of images had violent colors, a lack of painterly brush strokes, simple shape, obvious outline and contour, a nature of oppression of deep space. They used often existing materials made for the purpose of mass consumption as the subjects.
As these materials there were photographs in the news papers, ads in color, comm ercial covers and signs, cartoons, films etc. In order to mimic visual languages of advertisements and mass communications they used loud colors, jam-packed space, frank languages, and commercial products. Also a part of them used Ben Day dots using for half tone in cartoon and advertisement printing.
These situations were based on the facts that the popistes directly perceived the rapid diffusion of commercial products coming pouring out massively in 1950's and pop art's position as commercial products could not be separated from pop art's request that wanted to be consumed.
Thirdly, Commercialization of art works
Andy Warhol's life philosophy that made strenuous efforts for earning business success and fame called his studio as a factory, and he acted as an aggressive owner of a large company in capitalizing art works. In the second half of the 1960's, like an old and skilled investor he expanded diversely his investment field upto music, films, fashion, and publication and the name itself of Warhol acted as publishing rights.
4) The consumption of reproduction
Under economic and social circumstances in 1950's as the population increased welcoming an affluent society, and life level with the lapse of time became high, Americans were evoked to spend money in the flood of wide media advertisements that interpreted delicately consumption into individual economic success and psychological measuring means of happiness. Due to various factors that popistes examined and exploited, i.e. marketing, awareness for images, gradual emphases on consumerism, packaging culture, economic wealth and reasonable prices that one could purchase, they witnessed that art standards dropped overall as they regarded pure fine arts as a kind of daily necessities Stuffs represented in the art works were the goods that the greater part of the middle class easily possessed.
They easily procured also art works that there were high possibility of selling as art products, especially, more easily in case
that they were reproduced in prints, posters, and picture postcards. These new goods presented materials to a number of pop paintings.
The wealth that was full of commercial products presented praised clearly the affluent times.
In these trends popistes could use commercial products that won success and widely known in the market to increase their art work sales. They rapidly achieved fame and wealth following to celebrities who they sometimes depicted by themselves due to picture dealers' positive reaction, and by instigating the general public including a part of new riches. Mr. Warhol knew well that he needed images that could be perceived easrly and reproduced endlessly to establish his fame through mass media. The best popular materials to the public that artists dealt with and concentrated interests of media that were necessary for those art works to success, all these were the phenomena that the popistes knew well.
5) Reproduction keeps going on
We have to admit the fact that the form of popular culture be asked again in order that we may change and substitute customary practices of existing arts that having been exhausted. Mass culture keeps on reproducing by fragmenting and dismantling them.
Computography that carries a computer on its back is already built in multiplicity and reproductivity in its own body by using all the attributes that a computer has and all the functions of software. The differences between traditional prints and computographs are comparable with a hare and a tortoise or a wooden doll of Pinocchio and a robot of transformer that can change himself and can be combined himself in various situations and functions. To the limit of software function, even though I myself am hard to grab properly upto where the limit's end is and to the limit of a user's capability, I myself can not guess properly upto where the function limit of a computer is even though I am willing to make strenuous efforts to learn software as long as I live.
It is full of suggestions that If we listen to the dialogue between 1st generation computer artist, Mr.Gawano in 1960's and:
"Mr. Jin : Don't you have an intention to do computer art experiment continuously by using hardware and software.
Mr. Gawano assured : I can not catch up with the development of computer any more. It means that an era of master computer artisan is already passed away. But there might be a philosophical reason in his refusal." said Mr. Jin.
That is why Mr. Gawano spoke so. Because nearly all the softwares are developed, equipped with new additional functions and upgraded annually. New versions are released every year. Certainly the market logic plays its role in making this situation. In the field of sculpture it substitutes Mr. Rodin's hands(modelling), in the field of paintings it substitutes Mr. Picasso's heart(passion), in the field of assemblage it substitutes Mr. Rauschenberg's in-between(his attitude of works that he wants to work between arts and life). Also it substitutes Mr. Warhol's silkscreen and his factory. All these situations depend on user's awareness consciousness , will, capability, learning efforts etc.
Keeping pace with qualitative improvements of computer efficiency, as multilateral functions of reproduction appear by high technology,
marvelously, multiplicity and functions of reproduction that belonged to conventional prints diversified endlessly. Due to appearance of
cutting edge Ultraviolet printer we can print out on all the printing materials that have embossed surface, and also uneven surface except
for water and air. In contrast to traditional printing method injection printer print out by injecting ink without directly touching ink
on the surface of plane.
Like this, according to high technology, coping with it flexibly, I found abundant possibilities of expression and various phases that attend on them. Computography has incalculably strong points of infinite size of prints, unlimited printing materials, customized prints production by consumer's need on the basis of infinite size of prints, unlimited printing materials and a direct link to 3d printing that will have the 3rd Industrial Revolution cause etc.
In the sense of region extension we can combine computography with any kind of genre, in the meaning of function it is the most powerful
and in the form of prints it is the state-of-the-art prints. Cosmic prints get out of the Earth, execute spacewalk and communicate with
each other in the heaven above. Therefore computography gets out of narrow region of traditional prints and then occupies the highest
position of art form.
Since 1990 I have been making prints using computer I have found the greatness of the prints by observing closely various phases concerning prints above mentioned. The covering implicit of print making is wider than any other genre in the arts.
복제야 말로 현대의 본질이다.